Mi a baj a régi szigetelésekkel?

kamienica-595449_1280Nedvességszigetelést az építőiparban már kb. 100 éve végzünk bitumenes papírral folyamatosan. Ez 100 éve azok privilégiuma volt, akik anyagilag megengedhették maguknak. A kommunista évtizedekben ez a megoldás szinte minden építésnél általánosan elfogadott, s használt volt.

Kevés olyan épület épült azokban az években, amik ne lettek volna szigetelve. S ha ez így van, akkor mi is az oka annak, hogy ma oly sok a nedves ház?

Ennek van pár oka:

1. Az egyik, ami voltaképp nem is a fal hibája, amit sok ingatlantulajdonos ki tud szűrni, egy egyszerű részleges szakmai hibára vezethető vissza. Ezt kiszűrve sokszor az derül ki, hogy a ház nem is vizes. Ez az egyszerű probléma az, hogy az eredetileg szigetelt ház falaiban a szigetelés rétegét a nedves szakaszok vagy rétegek valamilyen oknál fogva megkerülik, áthidalják. Az átkosban pl. sokszor csak a falakat szigetelték, s a padozatot, aljzatot nem. Azaz, ha a falak szigeteltek, de a „cementlap”, a padló, a „kövezet” alulról nem szigetelt, egyszerűen átvezeti a nedvességet a vizes altalajból a falakba. Illetve ugyanígy probléma, ha a fal szigetelt, de a vakolattal a szigetelésre rávakoltak, s a vakolat 2-3 cm vastagságában húzódik fel a nedvesség.

2. Másik fő ok, ha a fal szigetelve van, de a szigetelőanyag elöregedett. A szigetelőanyagok elöregedése ellen senki nem tud tenni semmit. A szigetelőanyagok minősége a kommunizmust megelőzően jobb volt, mint a kommunizmus alatt. Ez nem kritika, ez helyzet. Mindkét időszakban az anyag papír alapú volt. Papír, ami ki van téve az anyag-öregedésnek, s tektonikus mozgásoknak.
Most kérdezhetnénk, hogy miként jön ehhez a témához a tektonikus mozgás? A kérdés jogos.

Kis-hazánk, a Kárpát-medence, nevében már jelzi is: „medence”, mely a környező régiókhoz képest jobban ki van téve a feltalajt képező lemezek közti állandó, finom rezonanciáknak.  Ez magával hozza azt az apró hatást, hogy ez a rezgés a házainkat is „támadják”. Támadják, de csak kis esetben okoznak kárt, mivel az építőanyagok a sok-száz éves tapasztalat alapján olyanok, amik jól elnyelik ezt a finom rezgést. A téglák közti malter rugalmas, s nem repedezik szét, csak nagyon ritkán. Az egymásra rakott sok-sok tégla elnyeli a rezgést.

De nem így működik ez egy egybefüggő, rugalmatlan szigetelőanyaggal, mely a beépítés után pár évvel már nagyon merevvé válik, rugalmatlanná válik. A rezonanciától a papír alapú szigetelő anyag széttöredezik, elomlik, s már nem végzi el azt a záró, szigetelő, izoláló feladatot, amire eredetileg hivatott volt.

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